Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Urgency for IPv6 not felt yet

from:http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/internet/0,39044908,62047615,00.htm

The business case for IPv6 has not been felt urgently by the industry, but the issue will come to a head in two years. Hence, companies should begin preparing now, according to networking experts.

Paul Wilson, director-general of APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Information Centre), told ZDNet Asia in an interview, the industry has long known of the limitations of IPv4, but has not prioritized spending on upgrading to IPv6.
"The simple business reality in a highly competitive environment is that a company will always spend its available resources on profit-making activities. There is no customer demand for IPv6, and therefore no immediate pressing business case," said Wilson.
The issue at hand with the current IPv4 standard is that there is a finite pool of addresses, so the industry will come to a point where the pool will be exhausted. The migration to IPv6 is one which is expected to cost billions in both hardware and software upgrades.
Wilson, who is a senior executive at the authority responsible for allocating Internet address resources in the Asia-Pacific region, said: "Sometimes we hear that the Internet industry has been unable to deploy IPv6 for one reason or another.
"The truth is, however, that the industry has decided not to deploy it so far."
APNIC hopes the industry will be catalyzed over the next two years to help to make up for lost time, to allow for a smoother transition to IPv6, he said.
Philip Smith, consulting engineer at the Internet architectures group, office of the CTO at Cisco Systems, told ZDNet Asia, a number of barriers face the industry's implementation of IPv6: the lack of customer demand, few content sites supporting both IPv4 and IPv6 and the costs associated with upgrading hardware, software, processes and training.
"Even after deciding on the migration action, businesses will have to deal with all the issues surrounding the existence of dual protocols within their networks over a short to medium time scale," Smith added.
Businesses should start planning IPv6 migrations nowSmith said ISPs "who do not have a plan on what to do to carry on growing their businesses after the end of 2010 will be left by the wayside".
"The IPv4 address pool runs out in early 2011. This is a hard fact," he said.
Businesses should be planning their IPv6 deployments now, he said. Businesses which delay this process will be faced with "an increased amount of work they have to do and [the delay] reduces the time they have available to implement IPv6 when they can no longer get IPv4 addresses," Smith noted.
And enterprise networks stand to benefit in the long run with IPv6, the two executives said.
Smith said: "Today抯 IPv6 deployment drivers focus on operational cost savings, simpler network models when deploying applications, collaboration, service integration and leading innovation."
APNIC's Wilson said the much larger address space IPv6 has over IPv4 will allow businesses to expand their networks much more easily without the use of current workarounds such as NAT (network address translation) technology.
"The eventual promise is that the IPv6 Internet will be cheaper and more efficient at many levels--from the basic infrastructure, to the applications that we run on it," he said.
Businesses will be able to stick with IPv4 for a while by means such as reclaiming unused address space, or using multiple layer NATs, but these are short-term solutions, Wilson said.
"By giving every electronic or electrical device an IP address, and allowing direct communications between them, there is a vast potential for new applications and add value in ways we haven抰 even imagined yet," he added.
Furthermore, countries need to invest in IPv6 to help seed future innovation, Wilson said. "Failure to adopt IPv6 addressing may directly affect Internet innovation and development in the Asia-Pacific region.
"The Internet permeates all aspects of the economy, so future economic development relies heavily on getting this right as quickly and effectively as possible."
Nonetheless, the industry is not expected to be able to make a complete migration by 2011--when IPv4's free pools are expected to reach exhaustion, said Wilson.
"There will be an ongoing demand for IPv4 address space after this time, and those who need it will get it where they can," he said.
To this end, APNIC and other regional Internet registrars are working on finding possible transfer mechanisms to reclaim space on a larger scale, Wilson added.
"There is definitely going to be a period time, probably years, during which IPv4 addresses will still be needed, but will be obtained through a very different framework to that which is in place today.
揙n the upside, organizations that move now still have time to plan a dignified migration to IPv6. Those that do plan now can build IPv6 support into normal network upgrade cycles and training budgets rather than risk a lack of IP address availability hampering their growth in the future," said Wilson.

网络地址枯竭怎么办

from:http://ifeng.yesky.com/365/8551365.shtml

最新的互联网统计报告显示,到今年6月底,我国网民达到2.53亿人,占到了全球网民的16%%以上,但是所分配到的互联网地址还不及全球的6%,而且已经用掉了80%左右。那么——
  中国互联网络信息中心(CNNIC)在北京发布的到2008年6月底,我国网民达到2.53亿人,比2007年底净增加4300万人。中国网民仅半年的增长量就超过了英国所有网民数(4036万),接近于新加坡全国人口的10倍!
  根据之前中国互联网络信息中心在天河软件园召开的2008IP地址资源研讨会上,对IP地址分配管理分析,按现有每年约消耗2亿个地址,并以年约19%的消耗增速,目前国际地址分配机构剩余的地址预计将于2010至2012年前后耗尽。
  IP地址面临枯竭
  2007年年底,中国网民数占到了全球的16%,但是所分配到的地址还不到全球的6%。目前中国绝大部分网络都是使用IPv4的网络地址,作为互联网的基础资源,IPv4的资源是有限的,而且已经用掉了80%左右。如不采取措施,届时新的网络用户将无法正常上网。
  网络用户都知道,要正常上网就必须有一个IP地址,通过IP地址解析域名,才能浏览网页。IP地址是因特网分配给联网计算机的号码,作为发送数据的地址,所以,IP地址可以被认为是网络中的“电话号码”。
  根据TCP/IP协议规定,我们现在所用的IPv4地址是由32位二进制数组成,为了方便记忆,人们将组成IP地址的32位二进制分成四段,每段8位,中间用小数点隔开,然后将每八位二进制转换成十进制数,这样就有了我们常见的IP地址,如:210.73.140.2。
  根据32位的IPv4算法,全球可提供的IPv4地址约有43亿多个,但由于IPv4地址的分配采用的是“先到先得,按需分配”的原则,估计在两年多后将被分配完毕。中国工程院副院长、互联网基础网络研究专家邬贺铨表示,目前我国差不多3个网民共享一个IP地址,到2010年面临IP地址枯竭时,越来越多的网民将共享一个IP地址,这必然将制约我国互联网的普及,网民同时在线规模受限,制约互联网新业务、新应用的开放及规模性部署。
  另一方面,越来越多的电子设备,包括PDA、汽车、手机等要求接入互联网,使原本捉襟见肘的网络地址资源更是急剧消耗。特别是手机,按照手机上网等功能的开发,几乎所有的手机厂商都在向国际因特网地址管理机构申请他们生产的每一部手机的IP地址,如果这一需求实现,网络地址需求将成倍增长。
  两个网址共存时代
  伴随互联网用户数膨胀,40多亿的IP地址已所剩无几。特别是近年互联网发展的速度和规模,远远超出了20多年前互联网先驱们制定TCP/IP协议时的预想。为了缓解地址危机的发生,其实早在上世纪90年代初期,互联网工程任务组IETF(InternetEngineeringTaskForce)就开始着手下一代互联网协议的制定工作。
  1994年7月,IETF决定把IP地址数由实验的64位升至128位,这个新的IP协议被称为IPv6。IPv6采用了128位的IP地址,因此地址资源要比IPv4丰富得多,其地址容量甚至可以为“地球上的每一粒沙子匹配一个相对应的IP地址”。
  据中国互联网信息中心介绍,IPv6除了容量巨大之外,还能对计算机地址进行自动配置。更改主机IP地址是一项非常繁琐和困难的工作,在IPv4中,只能实现主机IP地址的自动设置,IPv6继承了IPv4的自动配置服务,并将其称为全状态自动配置(statefulau鄄toconfiguration)。这使计算机在接入因特网时,可自动获取、登录的必要参数,无需手动干预就能够改变IP地址。
  此外,IPv6不仅解决了上网用户,包括手机上网用户对地址的海量需求,还为手机上网提供了良好的协议平台和许多增值特性,让用户可以在世界各地都使用同样的IPv6地址,非常适合未来手机用户的无线上网需求。
  同时,IPv4到IPv6的转换也面临着一些问题。应用服务系统的完全更新,虽然是最好的也是最后必然会完成的过渡,但对于现在却意味着网络运营商要使用新的网络基础设备,这需要一笔很大的资金投入。所以网络运营商现在暂时通过网络过渡和主机过渡等技术手段,利用现有网络设备,对IPv6的地址进行分装或加载,在现有的服务系统中进行IPv6地址的传输。因此,将会出现一个IPv4的枯竭和IPv6的成长共存的互联网时代。
  改变现有互联网格局
  据了解,目前欧美日本等国家都已经制定并着手实施向IPv6过渡的战略规划。最具代表性的就是美国军方和政府的过渡计划。虽然目前美国并不短缺IPv4地址,但仍然有很强的紧迫感和危机意识,因而在向IPv6过渡方面态度是很坚决和明确的,美国军方和政府都出台了相应政策来推进向IPv6的过渡。
  面对地址枯竭,我国也已经启动了相应的计划,2003年由中国工程院牵头,八部委联合实施“中国下一代互联网示范工程”(CNGI);2004年中科院的“IPv6网络关键技术及城域示范系统”通过验收。
  虽然目前IPv6在我国的推广程度仍然很低,在IPv6地址申请方面,中国大陆地区目前共分得IPv6地址53块,处于全球第16位,但已经取得的科研进展,为我国下一代互联网的发展在示范网络建设、关键设备、软件开发和推广、关键技术开发试验与示范等方面奠定了基础。
  中科院信息办表示,IPv4地址耗尽恰恰会促进我国互联网尽快向下一代互联网过渡,使得我国有机会在下一代互联网的发展中昂立潮头,从而改变一直以来落后跟随的地位,解决多年来制约我国互联网发展的网络信息安全、管理等问题。
  应对IPv4地址耗尽及顺利向下一代互联网过渡问题,是个庞大的系统工程,中科院信息办专家建议,政府应该实施国家行动计划,拿出相应的过渡路线图、时间表和解决方案,抓住机遇,掌握主动,改变现有的互联网格局。

Sunday, October 19, 2008

Fluke Adds IPv6 Discovery and Management Capabilities to OptiView Analyzer

come from:http://businessvoip.tmcnet.com/topics/benefits/articles/42725-fluke-adds-ipv6-discovery-management-capabilities-optiview-analyzer.htm

Fluke Networks (News - Alert) has launched a new version of its OptiView Series III Integrated Network Analyzer. The company claims that with new IPv6 discovery and management capabilities their new launch is the first portable network analyzer to identify and analyze IPv6 enabled devices and networks, including IPv6-IPv4 tunneling that could represent a security risk.


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A large number of organizations have IPv6 enabled on their systems by default but don't know it, according to Joe Klein, a security researcher with Command Information, a provider of next-generation networking services to Fortune 1000 and government entities. The companies also don’t have protection in place to block malicious traffic, as some intrusion detection systems and firewalls aren't set up to monitor IPv6 traffic. The unprotected systems present an avenue through which outsiders can attack their networks undetected.

Jerry Edgerton, CEO, Command Information, informed that their company tested the OptiView analyzer’s ability to identify and manage IPv6 addressing. The company found that the OptiView Series III Integrated Network Analyzer is in full compliance with all IPv6 addressing requirements.

By using advanced active discovery techniques and active testing, the new OptiView analyzer identifies and document devices utilizing IPv6, said the company. Users are thus able to quickly recognize devices that are using IPv6, identify open IPv6 ports, expose IPv6 through IPv4 tunneling and differentiate legitimate tunneling from a security breach.

Fluke Networks point out that the new capabilities of the OptiView analyzer will also benefit organizations deliberately deploying IPv6. Through OptiView, businesses can analyze IPv6 router advertisements, and spot global and self-assigned link local addresses that cause configuration issues between network devices.

Additionally, the new version of the OptiView Series III Integrated Network Analyzer offers an option for full analysis of 802.11n WLANs. As the product now includes coverage of all wireless network technologies (802.11 a/b/g/n), it has become the only tool needed for both wired and wireless troubleshooting and analysis.

The OptiView analyzer’s latest version also features enhanced VoIP and wireless device discovery that enables the discovery of IP phones and IP PBXs from all major VoIP manufacturers, including Cisco, Nortel (News - Alert), Avaya and Mitel. Fluke Networks adds that detailed wireless LAN analysis is now available from the wired side of the network, which identifies WLAN controllers, lightweight access points, intelligent access points and wireless clients.

Don't forget to check out TMCnet’s White Paper Library, which provides a selection of in-depth information on relevant topics affecting the IP Communications industry. The library offers white papers, case studies and other documents which are free to registered users.

Tiny IPv6-ready protocol stack created

come from:http://www.vnunet.com/vnunet/news/2228327/tiny-ipv6-ready-protocol-stack
Cisco, Atmel and the Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) have built one of the smallest ever IPv6 stacks, and have open sourced it for general use.
The uIPv6 stack has such small memory and power requirements that it can be built into almost any device, allowing for a host of new applications like in-depth network monitoring, web-enabled medical equipment and power monitoring systems in devices as small as a light bulb.
"UIPv6 has the potential to impact a wide range of market verticals where automation is key, just as voice-over-IP did in enterprise telephony," said Rob Adams, senior director of Cisco's corporate development technology group.
The new stack needs just 0.5Kb of SRAM for data structures, a minimum of 1.3Kb of SRAM for buffering and 11Kb of Flash for the code.
Cisco has contributed IP networking experience to the project, while Atmel has put the stack on low-power wireless hardware known as Raven. The SICS' knowledge in embedded operating systems design was also key to the development of uIPv6.
Patrick Wetterwald, president of the IP for Smart Objects Alliance, said: "By running an IPv6 stack, operating a network of sensors thus becomes as easy as operating a network of PCs, IP phones or any other IP devices."

An improved algorithm for finding community structure in networks with an application to IPv6 backbone network

The discovery of community structure in a large number of complex networks has attracted lots of interest in recent years. One category of algorithms for detecting community structure, the divisive algorithms, has been proposed and improved impressively. In this paper we propose an improved divisive algorithm, the basic idea of which is to take more than one parameters into consideration to describe the networks from different points of view. Although its basic idea appears to be a little simple, it is shown experimentally that it outperforms some other algorithms when applied to the networks with a relatively obscure community structure. We also demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to IPv6 backbone network. The communities detected by our algorithm indicate that although underdeveloped compared with IPv4 network, IPv6 network has already exhibited a preliminary community structure. Moreover, our algorithm can be further extended and adapted in the future. In fact, it suggests a simple yet possibly efficient way to improve algorithms.

On the placement of traceroute-like topology discovery instrumentation

An accurate map of the Internet is very important for studying the network’s internal structure andnetwork management. The main approach to map the Internet is to collect information from a set of sources byusing traceroute-like probes. In a typical mapping project, active measurement sources are relatively scarcewhile traceroute destinations are plentiful, which makes the sampled graphs quite different from the originalones. So, in the case that the number of sources is fixed, it becomes very important to determine how to placethese sources such that the sampled graphs can be closer to the original ones. In this paper, we investigate therelationship between the placement of traceroute sources and their sampled result. Based on the relationship, wepropose a method on how to place the traceroute sources. We show that the graph sampled from sourcesselected using our method is more accurate than the ones randomly selected. We also validate our conclusionusing the raw trace data of skitter[2] project.

Analyzing and Modeling the IPv6 Internet AS-level Topology

After analyzing the topology data from CAIDA’s Scamper and our IPv6 topology discovery system Dolphin, we find that the IPv6 Internet is also scale-free at AS level but with a new feature: its exponent of the degree distribution is just 1.2, which is much smaller than that of the IPv4 Internet and those of most other scale-free networks. The value of 2 of the degree exponent is the lower bound for most scale-free networks. We argue that the degree exponent is a measure of uniformity of the degree distribution and try to seek the reason for the small degree exponent of the IPv6 Internet. Current evolving network models, however, have difficulties in reproducing such a small exponent. Then based on the two major factors affecting the exponent and the EBA model we propose a new model which has the capability to construct a scale-free network with the degree exponent smaller than 2. To verify the validity of this model, both theoretical and experimental analyses have been carried out. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this model by successfully reproducing the topology of the IPv6 Internet.

DOLPHIN: THE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE NEXT GENERATION


With the growth of IPv6 research and application, thenext generation Internet was widely developed around theworld. The paper presents an IPv6 Internet measurementsystem named Dolphin, which performs the networkmeasurement work of IPv6 backbone. The paperintroduces the system realization and architecture ofDolphin system, and then analysis the data collection ofnext generation Internet.

Saturday, October 4, 2008

Display the topology on GoogleEarth

GLOBAL IPv6 AS Nodes



video

Topology Drew on GMap

<- Global IPv6 AS






EU IPv6 AS

About tools (1)

Kinds of visualization tools we developed faciliates the display of topological infomation and analytical findings.
















Introduction of IPv6 Group of SKLSDE

The IPv6 Group is a part of the State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment(SKLSDE) in BUAA, China.We took up with research on IPv6 backbone network topology discovery,modeling and analysis.
Dolphin is our IPv6 backbone network topology discovery system, based on asynchronous traceroute probe.With the help of Dolphin,we are able to obtain some topological information of the IPv6 backbone network.
Until 2008.9.23 22:00,we have found 624 ASes, 14563 routers and 101762 links.